THE CAMPAIGNS OF MacARTHUR IN THE PACIFIC, VOLUME I (Part 3 of 3)


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Gomm Naval Ships move overland up Africa Comdt. Simpkins Regiment De Meuron Komdt. Message from Don R.

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Forsyth, Chairman From the Hon. Introduction by Lt. Brink, C. Message from Comdt. Duxbury, Director, S. In my opinion, there should not be the slightest thought of changing the Olympic operation. However, Admiral Ernest King , the Chief of Naval Operations, was prepared to oppose proceeding with the invasion, with Admiral Nimitz's concurrence, which would have set off a major dispute within the US government.

At this juncture, the key interaction would likely have been between Marshall and Truman. There is strong evidence that Marshall remained committed to an invasion as late as 15 August. But tempering Marshall's personal commitment to invasion would have been his comprehension that civilian sanction in general, and Truman's in particular, was unlikely for a costly invasion that no longer enjoyed consensus support from the armed services.

Unknown to the Americans, the Soviet Union also considered invading a major Japanese island— Hokkaido —by the end of August , [ citation needed ] which would have put pressure on the Allies to act sooner than November. The transferred vessels included amphibious assault ships. On the other hand, no agreement envisaged Soviet participation in the invasion of Japan itself. The Japanese had kamikaze aircraft in southern Honshu and Kyushu which would have opposed Operations Olympic and Coronet. It is unknown to what extent they could have opposed Soviet landings in the far north of Japan.

In total, ships — including amphibious craft — were badly damaged while another 28 — including 15 landing ships and 12 destroyers — were sunk, mostly by kamikazes. The Soviets, however, had fewer than ships most of them not equipped for amphibious assault by the time they declared war on Japan on 8 August For Operation Downfall, the US military envisaged requiring more than 30 divisions for a successful invasion of the Japanese home islands. In comparison, the Soviet Union had about 11 divisions available, comparable to the 14 divisions the US estimated it would require to invade southern Kyushu.


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In the Battle of Shumshu 18—23 August , the Soviet Red Army had 8, troops that were not supported by tanks and without back-up from larger warships. The well-established Japanese garrison had 8, troops and fielded about 77 tanks.

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The battle lasted one day with minor combat actions going on for four more after the official surrender of Japan and the garrison , during which the attacking Soviet forces lost over troops and five of the 16 landing ships many of these formerly belonged to the US Navy and were later given to the Soviet Union to Japanese coastal artillery while the Japanese lost over troops. Soviet casualties during the Battle of Shumshu totalled up to 1,, while the Japanese suffered 1, casualties, making Shumshu the only battle in the Soviet—Japanese War where Soviet losses exceeded those of the Japanese, in stark contrast to overall Soviet-Japanese casualty rates in land-based fighting in Manchuria.

Since Japan and the Soviet Union maintained a state of wary neutrality until the Soviet declaration of war on Japan in August , Japanese observers based in Japanese-held territories in Manchuria, Korea, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands constantly watched the port of Vladivostok and other seaports in the Soviet Union.

According to Thomas B. Allen and Norman Polmar , the Soviets had carefully drawn up detailed plans for the Far East invasions, except that the landing for Hokkaido "existed in detail" only in Stalin's mind and that it was "unlikely that Stalin had interests in taking Manchuria and even taking on Hokkaido. Even if he wanted to grab as much territory in Asia as possible, he was too much focused on establishing a beachhead in Europe more so than Asia.

Bibliographie de l'Océanie. 1947

Because the U. Several estimates were made, but varied widely in numbers, assumptions and purposes, which included advocating and opposing the invasion. The estimated casualty figures later became a crucial point in postwar debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In preparation for Operation Olympic, the invasion of southern Kyushu, various figures and organizations made casualty estimates based on the terrain, strength, and disposition of known Japanese forces.

However, as reported Japanese strength in the Home Islands continued to climb and Japanese military performance increased, so too did the casualty estimates. Given a troop list of , men and a day campaign, the US Sixth Army could be expected to suffer between , casualties including 28, dead and missing under the "European Experience" 0. Outside the government, well-informed civilians were also making guesses.

Kyle Palmer, war correspondent for the Los Angeles Times , said half a million to a million Americans would die by the end of the war. Herbert Hoover , in memorandums submitted to Truman and Stimson, also estimated , to 1,, fatalities, and those were believed to be conservative estimates; but it is not known if Hoover discussed these specific figures in his meetings with Truman. The Chief of the Army Operations Division thought them "entirely too high" under "our present plan of campaign.

The Battle of Okinawa was one of the bloodiest in the Pacific, with an estimated total of over 82, direct casualties on both sides: 14, Allied deaths and 77, Japanese soldiers. In evaluating these estimates, especially those based on projected Japanese troop strength such as General MacArthur's , it is important to consider what was known about the state of Japanese defenses at the time, as well as the actual condition of those defenses MacArthur's staff believed Japanese manpower on Kyushu to be roughly , In , there were still , of these Purple Heart medals in stock.

While some totals particularly for items such as swords and small arms may be inexact owing to problems of collection and the activities of the black market, the amount of military equipment available to the Japanese in and around the Home Islands by August was roughly as follows:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the failed Mongol invasion attempts, see Mongol invasions of Japan. Mainland Japan.

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Japan campaign. See also: Orders of battle for Downfall. Retrieved January 23, Reynolds ; ; ; , pp.

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Hyperwar, page Retrieved 21 August According to Secretary of War Henry Stimson, the number of American military personnel involved in operations to subjugate Japan "was on the order of 5 million men; if all those indirectly concerned are included, it was larger still. Japan at War: an Oral History. New Press. Japanese strength is given at 4,, in the Home Islands and 3,, abroad. Some 28 million Japanese fell under the provisions of the law in addition to the 1.

Stuart Symington: A Life. University of Missouri Press. Navy, — By George W. Skates , pictorial insert. Australia in the War of — Kamikaze: Japanese Special Attack Weapons — Osprey Publishing. United States Naval Institute. Retrieved 6 April Archived at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 17 July Retrieved October 10, Retrieved March 17, Retrieved 21 October War is Boring. Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 11 June Stanford University Press. March 1, Retrieved 26 April Allen and Norman Polmar. Random House. Stimson, "The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb" pp.

Frame, Jr. Archived from the original on Retrieved Allen, Thomas B. Code-Name Downfall. Bauer, Jack; Coox, Alvin D. August Marine Corps Gazette. Coffey, Thomas M. New York: Avon Books. Day, David New York: Oxford University Press. Drea, Edward J.


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