Through the extraordinary privilege of learning to recognize whales as individuals, I have broken free of thinking of whales as populations; as numbers of animals.
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Their culture has been passed on through generations. Let me emphasize this. The same lineages of Orca have been following the same runs of salmon spawning in the rivers of their birth.
A30 came here as a calf with her mother, A2 Nicola. Her daughters A50 Clio and A54 Blinkhorn continue to come into the area with their offspring and grand-offspring, in search of salmon with their greatest reliance being on Chinook. Once the salmon have spawned, they are far less likely to be in the area. A30 and A34 matrilines near the Bere Point rubbing beaches in In the foreground, Cedar A75, born in I have come to better understand the longevity of these lineages.
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Not all rivers are the same to salmon. Not all salmon are the same to Orca.
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And not all Orca should be perceived to be the same by we humans. All are at risk and no, they really will not mate with one another nor will they switch their diet see below for information on the four BC Orca populations. Too many of our children know more about kangaroos and elephants than they do about the whales off our shores. This absence of knowledge is very problematic — for the whales and for the ecosystem upon which our lives also depend. One of the most powerful lessons learned from Orca is how very wrong we can be having vilified them, presumed them to be abundant, shot at them, put them into captivity, etc BUT how quickly we can change when knowledge replaces fear.
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We would do so much better by respecting those whose lineages and cultures date back s of years. Were a mother to die and there was only one surviving daughter and her offspring, the matriline would then be named for that daughter e. See this link. But when there is more than one surviving daughter; only surviving sons; or son s and daughters s , the matriline retains the name of the deceased mother.
Clear as mud right? If you live on the West Coast, you may have heard someone say. Recently, while teaching a marine naturalist workshop, I was asked if this was true. And oh what a rabbit hole this took me on, leading not only to chickens, but elephants!
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I knew that carbon monoxide is a byproduct of respiration in some brown algae like Bull Kelp Nereocystis leutkeana. The stem-like structure, the stipe, is also hollow and directly connected to the pneumatocyst and, thereby, must contain some carbon monoxide too. The fact-finding mission took me all the way back to and the research of Seth Langdon who discovered that there was carbon monoxide in Bull Kelp and then exposed the concentration to various animals. And yes, he killed chickens.
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Bull Kelp float pneumatocyst and fronds. Jump ahead to and the Masters thesis of Lauran Liggen. A study conducted by Landgon determined whether or not the concentration of CO was at a toxic level by exposing pneumatocyst gases to animals and measuring their physiological effects. Without harming any animals, data collected during this study can further support this statement. Given that an average adult male has a lung capacity of ml and the largest recorded pneumatocyst in this study ml had a CO concentration of 1. Foreman, in pursuit of his PhD University of California, Berkley, , discovered that the float, which may have a volume of up to 3 litres.
Does this behaviour suggest elephants once lived in association with kelp and learned to avoid the poisonous gas?
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Let me answer that. This is a sample size of ONE with a circus elephant who lived in an apartment complex in Alaska. This may not have been the wildest of elephants but possibly a pretty wild apartment complex.
modernpsychtraining.com/cache/iphones/wosi-what-is.php I would suggest that there is more valuable messaging around Bull Kelp and its great importance as habitat, fuel for the food web, oxygen production and carbon dioxide absorption. And once again, with this blog, I feel like I have fulfilled part of my calling by providing essential, factual, life-enhancing information. In this case, involving kelp, chickens and an elephant named Bo.
They crawl around. They swim in the most extraordinary way. As pretty as the name is, I believe it adds to confusion. These are animals, not plants.
They are echinoderms, relatives to sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Only juvenile feather stars have a stalk. Then, get this. See below. Feather stars have 5 feathery arms that split to form 10 or more arm branches that are used to gather bits of organic matter snacks out of the water. Feather stars also use their arms to swim as recently captured in this video by dive buddy, Brenda Irving. It swims by graceful undulation of its arms in 3 sets, each set moving successively but overlapping.
Thus, while about one-third of the arms are in power stroke, another third are in recovery, and the last third somewhere in between. During the power stroke the arms extend out maximally for greatest frictional resistance, while during the recovery stroke they bend inwards to minimise resistance.
In the scenario shown, swimming is initiated by the blue triplet making a downstroke, followed 1sec later by the green quadruplet , and 2 seconds later by the orange triplet. An entire sequence is completed, then, in about 3 seconds, and the pattern may be repeated for up to 30 seconds. After several strokes to move vertically to a mean height of 29 cm at an average speed of 5.
If there is current, they will swim with the current. Horizontal swimming is achieved by the 5 arms furthest away from the bottom making stronger downward pulses than the arms closest to the bottom. Source: Shaw and Fontaine. See Figure 3 at this link if you wish to better understand the horizontal movement. Swimming and crawling can be stimulated by current and touch from predators such as Sunflower Stars Pycnopodia helianthoides and crabs.
This cycle can be repeated several times and capture by a sea star is actually thought to be rare. The cirri hold on to surfaces and allow the Feather Star to crawl. The cirri are jointed and can slowly bend and straighten. The arms are also involved in crawling around. Repetition of this behaviour will gradually move the individual to a new location. What a remarkable species with relatives dating back million years and defences including: 1 being able to regenerate arms; 2 having a body that has little nutritional content, is hard, and may taste bad AND; 3 is strong enough to withstand the current that delivers snacks, but light enough to allow swimming as an escape response.
Above: Feather star near Telegraph Cove at about 10 m depth. Species reported to be from 10 to m. Believe this to be a female! Gonads appear as swellings on special pinnules of the arms, known as genital pinnules. Genital pinnules occur on all 10 arms, but concentrate in the lower third of each arm. Male individuals can be recognised by the creamy white colour of their genital pinnules, and females by pink or orange-coloured pinnules. Above: Another fantastic capture by Neil McDaniel. Also, see the juvenile Giant Sea Cucumbers? Feather stars at the same site as the individual in the video — the Knight Inlet Sill.
Animals to the right are brachipods. Above: Dive buddy, Brenda Irving, just before taking the video above. The animals on the coral in this image are Orange Hermit Crabs.
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